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Publications Tagged: PLA

The "People" in the PLA: Recruitment, Tr... Cover Image
Added September 17, 2008
The "People" in the PLA: Recruitment, Training, and Education in China's Military. Edited by Mr. Roy Kamphausen, Dr. Andrew Scobell, Mr. Travis Tanner.
On September 28, 2007, under the joint leadership of the U.S. Army War College’s Strategic Studies Institute and NBR’s Pyle Center for Northeast Asian Studies, approximately 70 leading experts on the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) convened at Carlisle Barracks, PA, for a 2-day discussion on the Chinese military’s human infrastructure. Presentations and discussions focused on identifying trends in PLA recruitment, education, training, personnel management, and demographics.
The “People” in the PLA: Recruitment, Training, an... Cover Image
Added November 13, 2007
The “People” in the PLA: Recruitment, Training, and Education in China's 80-Year-Old Military. Authored by Justin B Liang, Sarah K Snyder.
On September 28, 2007, more than 60 leading experts on China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) convened at Carlisle Barracks, PA. The 2007 PLA Conference, conducted by The National Bureau of Asian Research and the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College, sought to investigate the 80-year-old military’s human infrastructure, identifying trends in PLA recruitment, education and training, demographics, and historical perspectives.
Right Sizing the People's Liberation Army: Explori... Cover Image
Added September 04, 2007
Right Sizing the People's Liberation Army: Exploring the Contours of China's Military. Edited by Dr. Andrew Scobell, Mr. Roy Kamphausen.
This volume addresses how the leadership of China and the PLA view what size of PLA best meets China’s requirements. Among other things, this analytical process makes important new contributions on the question of PLA transparency, long an issue among PLA watchers.
Shaping China's Security Environment: The Role of ... Cover Image
Added October 18, 2006
Shaping China's Security Environment: The Role of the People's Liberation Army. Edited by Dr. Andrew Scobell, Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
This volume addresses the role of the Chinese military in shaping its country’s security environment.
Planning For and Applying Military Force: An Exami... Cover Image
Added March 01, 2006
Planning For and Applying Military Force: An Examination of Terms. Authored by Lieutenant General (USMC Ret) Paul K Van Riper.
Joint doctrine is currently undergoing some potentially major revisions. The author asks the doctrine community to take a step back from the process of change and take a hard look at the differences between the original concepts and the proposed revisions.
Coup D'Oeil: Strategic Intuition in Army Planning... Cover Image
Added November 01, 2005
Coup D'Oeil: Strategic Intuition in Army Planning. Authored by Dr. William Duggan.
Dr. Duggan shows how to reconcile analytical and intuitive methods of decisionmaking by drawing on recent scientific research that brings the two together. The result is "strategic intuition," which bears remarkable resemblance to von Clausewitz's idea of coup d'oeil in his classic work, On War.
Agile Leaders, Agile Institutions: Educating Adapt... Cover Image
Added August 01, 2005
Agile Leaders, Agile Institutions: Educating Adaptive and Innovative Leaders for Today and Tomorrow. Authored by LTC Christopher P Gehler.
This paper examines the new strategic reality and its implications on our officers' professional military education, as well as the concepts of individual and organizational agility, specifically investigating adaptability, innovation, and learning. The author recommends a model to develop agile leaders, while making the institutional system more agile as well.
Sustainability of Colombian Military/Strategic Sup... Cover Image
Added July 01, 2005
Sustainability of Colombian Military/Strategic Support for "Democratic Security". Authored by Dr. Thomas A. Marks.
At a time when counterinsurgency is again widely discussed, embattled Colombia has implemented a Democratic Security and Defense Policy that shows every sign of success against a complex narco-insurgency that has raged for four decades. The strategic initiative has been seized by acting upon the principle that personal security is the basis for state vitality.
Budget Policy, Deficits, and Defense: A Fiscal Fra... Cover Image
Added June 01, 2005
Budget Policy, Deficits, and Defense: A Fiscal Framework for Defense Planning. Authored by Dr. Dennis S. Ippolito.
Military transformation strategies are based on overly optimistic assumptions about future defense budgets. Defense plans should take into account fiscal realities, particularly the deficit and debt outlook and domestic program commitments.
The Lessons of History: The Chinese people's Liber... Cover Image
Added July 01, 2003
The Lessons of History: The Chinese people's Liberation Army at 75. Edited by Ms. Laurie Burkitt, Dr. Andrew Scobell, Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
With the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PLA) celebrating its 75th anniversary on August 1, 2002, it only seemed appropriate and timely to take stock of the world's largest military. The PLA has officially been in existence for three-quarters of a century, and its history is one filled with turmoil and warfare.
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff's Leadership Using ... Cover Image
Added June 01, 2003
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff's Leadership Using the Joint Strategic Planning System in the 1990s: Recommendations for Strategic Leaders. Authored by Dr. Richard M. Meinhart.
The author examines how three Chairmen--Generals Powell, Shalikashvili, and Shelton--adapted and used strategic planning to provide direction and shape the military in the rapidly changing strategic environment of the 1990s. He identifies five broad recommendations relevant to future leaders on how to use a strategic planning system to transform their organizations.
Colombia's Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a W... Cover Image
Added October 01, 2002
Colombia's Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a Wider War. Authored by Mr. Richard Millett.
It provides a careful examination of the so-called "spillover" problems generated by Colombia's three simultaneous wars against illegal drug traffickers, insurgents, and self-appointed paramilitary groups. All seek, in one way or another, violently to change or depose the state. All use the uncontrolled "gray areas" in Colombia and its neighboring states to sustain, conduct, and replenish their nefarious operations without risk of significant interference.
China's Growing Military Power: Perspectives on Se... Cover Image
Added September 01, 2002
China's Growing Military Power: Perspectives on Security, Ballistic Missiles, and Conventional Capabilities. Edited by Dr. Andrew Scobell, Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
The nine chapters in this volume, all written by leading experts, cover a diverse set of important topics: East Asian perspectives on China's security ambitions, the status of the Chinese ballistic missile program and regional reactions to U.S. missile defense initiatives, and China's ever-improving conventional military capabilities.
Pax NATO: The Opportunities of Enlargement... Cover Image
Added August 01, 2002
Pax NATO: The Opportunities of Enlargement. Authored by LTC Raymond A. Millen.
The process of NATO enlargement has served to harmonize Central and Eastern Europe with Western Europe in a remarkable manner. That achievement alone has made enlargement worthwhile. Beyond the next round of enlargement, the reorientation of NATO enlargement towards the Middle East and North African regions recognizes future threats. These regions may never receive the full security umbrella of NATO.
Tweaking NATO: The Case for Integrated Multination... Cover Image
Added June 01, 2002
Tweaking NATO: The Case for Integrated Multinational Divisions. Authored by LTC Raymond A. Millen.
NATO's integrated military structure does not easily accommodate the new members, which still suffer from the effects of the Soviet system. Their nascent market economies and unsophisticated militaries represent great obstacles to NATO interoperability.
China and Strategic Culture... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2002
China and Strategic Culture. Authored by Dr. Andrew Scobell.
The author examines the impact of strategic culture on 21st century China. He contends that the People's Republic of China's security policies and its tendency to use military force are influenced by their understandings of the strategic cultures of other states. Gaining a fuller appreciation for how Chinese strategists view the U.S. and Japan will better enable us to assess regional and global security issues.
Colombian Army Adaptation to FARC Insurgency... Cover Image
Added January 01, 2002
Colombian Army Adaptation to FARC Insurgency. Authored by Dr. Thomas A. Marks.
The author points out that Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) insurgents actively are pursuing a strategy to mobilize the disaffected and disposed people of Colombia, and to control the entire national territory. At the same time, he argues that no one in the national political establishment has taken the initiative to conduct an appropriate effort to deny FARC its objective.
Rapid Decisive Operations: An Assumptions-Based Cr... Cover Image
Added November 01, 2001
Rapid Decisive Operations: An Assumptions-Based Critique. Authored by Dr. Antulio J. Echevarria, II.
The author argues that, while those who developed the concept of rapid decisive operations (RDO) deserve high praise for attempting to link two relative properties—speed and decisiveness—the definition of RDO is at present incoherent and based on several deeply flawed assumptions. He goes on to recommend a method—which he calls Assumption-based Concept Development—for identifying and addressing an operational concept's critical assumptions.
Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban T... Cover Image
Added October 01, 2001
Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban Terrain. Authored by Dr. Michael Desch.
This is required reading for military professionals and others interested in defense policy and issues. America's own military history demonstrates the soldier's dilemma in fighting among populations. Our doctrine and cultural focus have remained preoccupied with the classic "fight in the woods" or the seizure of high ground.
The Drug Scourge as a Hemispheric Problem... Cover Image
Added August 01, 2001
The Drug Scourge as a Hemispheric Problem. Authored by General Barry R. McCaffrey.
General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Retired) argues that Colombia s 40 million citizens must not be deserted by their neighbors. Leaving the Colombians to deal in isolation with a pervasive drug problem will deeply affect all 800 million of us in the Western Hemisphere through addiction, violence, and corruption. Moreover, he argues that the United States and the entire international community must supp
U.S. Security Policy in the Western Hemisphere: Wh... Cover Image
Added June 01, 2001
U.S. Security Policy in the Western Hemisphere: Why Colombia, Why Now, and What Is To Be Done? Authored by Dr. Max G. Manwaring.
In substantive U.S. national security terms, the author addresses the questions, Why Colombia, Why Now, and What Is To Be Done? He points out that the fragile democracy of Colombia is at risk, and that the violent spillover effects of three simultaneous wars pose a threat to the rest of the Western Hemisphere and the interdependent global community. He recommends an actionable political-military s
Plan Colombia: Some Differing Perspectives... Cover Image
Added June 01, 2001
Plan Colombia: Some Differing Perspectives. Authored by Dr. Gabriel Marcella, GEN (RET) Charles E. Wilhelm, Colombian General Alvaro Valencia Tovar, Dr. Ricardo Arias Calderon, Mr. Chris Marquis.
Contains introduction and four papers present distinct perspectives on the potential effectiveness of Plan Colombia. Co-authors include former Commander of US Southern Command, former Vice-President of Panama, a noted Colombian military intellectual, and New York Times correspondent.
The Search for Accountability and Transparency in ... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2001
The Search for Accountability and Transparency in PLAN COLOMBIA: Reforming Judicial Institutions--Again. Authored by Dr. Luz E. Nagle.
The author argues that confidence in an efficient, courageous and transparent judiciary goes to the very heart of the governability of Colombia, and that Plan Colombia does not address the root causes of Colombia's problems. These are weak government, inequality, absence of citizen participation, corruption and an ineffective legal system.
Plan Colombia: The View from the Presidential Pala... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2001
Plan Colombia: The View from the Presidential Palace. Authored by Mr. Eduardo Pizano.
The author, a former member of the Colombian Senate and now the General Secretary to the President of Colombia, discusses various misconceptions stemming from the uncertainty and confusion that permeated conference discussions involving U.S. policy in Colombia and the implementation of Plan Colombia. Finally, he argues that there are no cocksure short-term answers to Colombia s problems. What is c
European Perceptions of Plan Colombia: A Virtual C... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2001
European Perceptions of Plan Colombia: A Virtual Contribution to a Virtual War and Peace Plan? Authored by Dr. Joaquin Roy.
Europeans apparently do not approve of the seeming U.S. emphasis on providing military equipment and training to Colombia for a counternarcotics effort in what they see as a larger strategic political conflict. At the same time, he reports that Europeans are not only concerned with the counternarcotics violence in Colombia, but also with the economic, security, and political spillover effects for
U.S. Support of PLAN COLOMBIA: Rethinking the Ends... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2001
U.S. Support of PLAN COLOMBIA: Rethinking the Ends and Means. Authored by Dr. Stephen E. Flynn.
The author argues that the U.S. emphasis on drug control in its support of Plan Colombia is misguided and akin to prescribing an antibiotic regime to combat a disease not caused by bacteria or similar micro-organisms. The illegal drug industry in Colombia is not the cause of that country's fragile socio-political system, but a symptom of and a contributor to the fragility of the Colombian state.
Plan Colombia: The Strategic and Operational Imper... Cover Image
Added April 01, 2001
Plan Colombia: The Strategic and Operational Imperatives. Authored by Dr. Gabriel Marcella.
Examines the strategic theory within Plan Colombia, the master plan which the government of Colombia developed to strengthen democracy through peace, security, and economic development. Recommends that the United States and the world community assist Colombia, but the sacrifices must be made collectively by Colombians.
People's Liberation Army After Next... Cover Image
Added August 01, 2000
People's Liberation Army After Next. Authored by Colonel Susan M. Puska.
The goal of this conference was to comprehensively examine Chinese military modernization efforts. The conference also included a preliminary yet timely examination of the PLA s potential application of information warfare. An initial discussion of the post-Kosovo implications for China s Taiwan strategy and China s foreign military relations also took place.
Chinese Arms Exports: Policy, Players and Process... Cover Image
Added July 01, 2000
Chinese Arms Exports: Policy, Players and Process. Authored by Dr. Bates Gill, Mr. Evan S. Medeiros.
Although China experienced a significant decline in its arms exports in the 1990s (down from the boom times of the 1980s), the PRC provides a significant array of lethal weapons and sensitive defense technologies to states around the world. These exports provide an invaluable means by which to assess the progress and performance of China's military-industrial complex.
Chinese Army Building in the Era of Jiang Zemin... Cover Image
Added July 01, 2000
Chinese Army Building in the Era of Jiang Zemin. Authored by Dr. Andrew Scobell.
What are the national security and national military goals of China s leaders? What strategies are Chinese leaders considering in pursuit of these goals? What is the likelihood that these goals will be attained?
The PLA and the Kosovo Conflict... Cover Image
Added May 01, 2000
The PLA and the Kosovo Conflict. Authored by Dr. June Teufel-Dreyer.
The Chinese People s Liberation Army (PLA) has also analyzed the Kosovo conflict and drawn its own conclusions. Different groups within the Chinese military drew different judgments. Dr. Dreyer argues that these differences of opinion reflect the considerable diversity of thinking about defense modernization and future war that exists within the PLA today.
Shaping the World through Engagement: Assessing th... Cover Image
Added April 01, 2000
Shaping the World through Engagement: Assessing the Department of Defense's Theater Engagement Planning Process. Authored by COL Thomas Jordan, Professor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr., Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
The Department of Defense (DoD) has launched an ambitious planning initiative that could have a major impact upon how resources are allocated among the military departments and the combatant commands. This monograph addresses how well Theater Engagement Planning methodology has been designed and implemented and offers recommendations to improve the existing process.
The Chinese Armed Forces in the 21st Century... Cover Image
Added December 01, 1999
The Chinese Armed Forces in the 21st Century. Authored by Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
Each chapter author was challenged to envision some aspect of the Chinese armed forces into the next century. The goal was to paint a realistic view of how domestic and international pressures would shape both Beijing's and Taipei's security environment.
China's Strategic Modernization: Implications for ... Cover Image
Added September 01, 1999
China's Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States. Authored by Mark A. Stokes.
Conventional wisdom portrays the People's Republic of China (PRC) People's Liberation Army (PLA) as a backward continental force that will not pose a military challenge to its neighbors or to the United States well into the 21st century. The author offers an alternative perspective by outlining emerging PLA operational concepts and a range of research and development projects that appear to have b
China's Military Potential... Cover Image
Added October 01, 1998
China's Military Potential. Authored by Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
This monograph provides an appraisal of the ability of the People's Republic of China (PRC) to build a credible military force in the 21st century. Colonel Wortzel concludes that China could become a military power in every sense, but the greater likelihood is that the PRC will be overcome by internal problems. Nonetheless, the growth in China's military potential bears careful watching.
The Creeping Irrelevance of U.S. Force Planning... Cover Image
Added May 01, 1998
The Creeping Irrelevance of U.S. Force Planning. Authored by Dr. Jeffrey Record.
Jeffrey Record examines what he believes is a half-century-old and continuing recession of large-interstate warfare and, since the World War's demise, the unexpected and often violent disintegration of established states. The author's critical analysis leads him to propose significant and controversial changes in planning standards, force structure, and defense spending.
Force Planning Considerations for Army XXI... Cover Image
Added February 01, 1998
Force Planning Considerations for Army XXI. Authored by Dr. William T. Johnsen.
Promoting U.S. national interests through shaping the international security environment also will become a major role for the U.S. military. To fulfill its multiple roles, the Army's force structure and design must provide the capabilities necessary to operate across a broad spectrum of conflict in peacetime, crisis, and war.
The CINCs' Strategies: The Combatant Command Proce... Cover Image
Added December 01, 1997
The CINCs' Strategies: The Combatant Command Process. Authored by COL (RET) William W. Mendel, Dr. Graham H. Turbiville, Jr..
The authors report their observations of the different ways combatant commanders-in-chief (CINCs) produce a strategy document, and suggest that new joint doctrine is needed to bring a degree of regularity and orderliness to the CINCs' strategic planning process. The CINCs' Strategies: The Combatant Command Process provides a brief look at the CINCs' strategy objectives and concepts in order to place the planning process in context.
Force Planning in an Era of Uncertainty: Two MRCs ... Cover Image
Added September 01, 1997
Force Planning in an Era of Uncertainty: Two MRCs as a Force Sizing Framework. Authored by Professor John F. Troxell.
The two MRC framework constitutes a logical scheme for organizing U.S. defense planning efforts. New approaches to planning scenarios and the operational concept for employing forces offer the potential for such adjustments concerning the "ways" of the strategic paradigm, while force thinning and modernization are two important categories for adjusting the affordability of the strategic "means."
Traditional Military Thinking and the Defensive St... Cover Image
Added August 01, 1997
Traditional Military Thinking and the Defensive Strategy of China. Authored by Lieutenant General Li Jijun. Edited by Dr. Earl H. Tilford, Jr..
On July 15, 1997, the U.S. Army War College hosted a delegation from the Chinese Academy of Military Science. A speech was delivered to the U.S. Army War College Corresponding Studies Class of 1997 by the Chinese delegation's leader, Lieutenant General Li Jijun. General Li graciously agreed to the publication of his address.
Strategic Planning and the Drug Threat... Cover Image
Added August 01, 1997
Strategic Planning and the Drug Threat. Authored by COL (RET) William W. Mendel, COL (RET) Murl D. Munger.
The primary purpose of this publication is to show how the principles and techniques of strategic and operational planning can be applied to the supply reduction side of our national effort to curb the trafficking of illicit drugs. An earlier version was published in 1991 which introduced campaign planning methodology as a means to help bridge the gap existing between the policy and strategy.
What's with the Relationship between America's Arm... Cover Image
Added September 01, 1996
What's with the Relationship between America's Army and China's PLA? Authored by Colonel Jer Donald Get.
There are some who question the value of renewing military ties with the People's Republic of China (PRC) based on the limited gains accrued to the U.S. Army from the earlier relationship. In this essay, U.S. Army Colonel Jer Donald Get argues that this is a short-sighted attitude. Our Army and the PLA must take a measured approach, setting pragmatic objectives.
China's Quest for Security in the Post-Cold War Wo... Cover Image
Added July 01, 1996
China's Quest for Security in the Post-Cold War World. Authored by Dr. Samuel S. Kim.
What the world sees in China, a modernizing, economically robust, and assertive regional hegemon and world power "want-to-be," is, Dr. Kim asserts, at least in part a facade. Although China has made remarkable economic progress in the past few years, those who trumpet its rise do not consider its massive internal contradictions involving social, political, demographic, and environmental problems.
China's Transition into the 21st Century: U.S. and... Cover Image
Added July 01, 1996
China's Transition into the 21st Century: U.S. and PRC Perspectives. Authored by Dr. David Shambaugh, Senior Colonel Wang Zhongchun.
Professor Shambaugh contends that those who succeed Deng Xiaoping, fearful of any further erosion of Communist Party hegemony and determined to return China to a purer form of neo-Maoist Marxism, will become even more conservative as China's economic and social problems intensify. Senior Colonel Wang Zhongchun provides a tour d'horizon of nearly a half-century of Chinese defense policy.
China and the Revolution in Military Affairs... Cover Image
Added May 01, 1996
China and the Revolution in Military Affairs. Authored by Dr. Bates Gill, LTC Lonnie Henley.
Dr. Bates Gill argued that there is more to participating in the RMA than securing or producing high-tech weaponry. Army Lieutenant Colonel Lonnie Henley argues that, over the next 20 years, China will deploy a dozen or so divisions possessing relatively advanced systems, but that overall, the PLA will remain about a generation behind the U.S. Army.
Strategic Plans, Joint Doctrine and Antipodean Ins... Cover Image
Added October 01, 1995
Strategic Plans, Joint Doctrine and Antipodean Insights. Authored by Professor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr., Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
The common view is that doctrine persists over a broader time frame than planning and that the latter draws on the former for context, syntax, even format. In truth the very process of planning shapes new ways of military action. The authors explore the relationship between strategic planning and doctrine at the joint level.
U.S. Department of Defense Strategic Planning: The... Cover Image
Added September 01, 1995
U.S. Department of Defense Strategic Planning: The Missing Nexus. Authored by Professor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr., Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
The authors define a formal strategic plan: one that contains specific strategic objectives, offers a clear and executable strategy for achieving objectives, illuminates force capability requirements, and is harmonized with the Future Years Defense Program. They conclude by examining three alternatives to improve the strategic planning processes and to facilitate efficient development of strategic plans.
Another View of the Revolution in Military Affairs... Cover Image
Added July 01, 1994
Another View of the Revolution in Military Affairs. Authored by Mr. Jeffrey R. Cooper.
He urges defense planners to determine what strategic--as opposed to operational-- benefits might be derived from the RMA. He contends that making the internal reforms that will be required will be as challenging as coming to terms with the operational and strategic implications of the new technologies.
Trends in German Defense Policy: The Defense Polic... Cover Image
Added June 01, 1994
Trends in German Defense Policy: The Defense Policy Guidelines and the Centralization of Operational Control. Authored by Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
Like most of its NATO allies, the Federal Republic of Germany has undertaken a massive restructuring of its armed forces. The end of the Cold War, the need for unified Germany to assume responsibility for its security, and the current economic recession have made German defense planning extremely difficult.
The Revolution in Military Affairs: A Framework fo... Cover Image
Added June 01, 1994
The Revolution in Military Affairs: A Framework for Defense Planning. Authored by Dr. Michael J. Mazarr.
Dr. Michael J. Mazarr argues that the current revolution in military affairs is part of a larger sociopolitical transformation. The new technologies both propelling and resulting from this transformation are having a profound impact on warfare. Dr. Mazarr urges military and civilian strategists, planners, and decisionmakers to think about armed conflict in ways so novel that those used to dealing
Alternative World Scenarios for a New Order of Nat... Cover Image
Added January 01, 1993
Alternative World Scenarios for a New Order of Nations. Authored by Dr. Charles W. Taylor.
The author provides a set of plausible scenarios against which users can build policies and decisions while anticipating and judging their consequences before implementation.